A Product-oriented Evaluation of Gross Motor Proficiency with 4-15 year old Canadian Children

Dwayne P Sheehan


Developing proficiency in fundamental movement skills is necessary for games and sports, cognitive ability, psychosocial health, and daily living. The objective of this study was to understand the gross motor development (GMD) of 589 4-15 year old typically developing Canadian children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Participants were within the normal range for GMD (scale score range 11-19). However, upper limb coordination (M = 13.5) and balance (M = 14.3), failed to meet the average scale score (15). Bilateral coordination (M = 17.1) and running speed & agility (M = 16.8) showed the best results. BMI was associated with balance (p = 0.013), running speed & agility (p < 0.001) and strength (p < 0.001). Age was associated with all five subtests (all p < 0.05) and gender was not associated with any subtests. This study can serve as a baseline for other researchers studying GMD in children and youth.


Physical Education; Pedagogy; Physical Literacy; Physical Activity; Gross Motor Development

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